Geneva Convention On Refugees
LexInter | November 21, 2008 | 0 Comments

Geneva Convention On Refugees

Table of Contents

Considering that the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights approved on December 10, 1948 by the General Assembly affirmed the principle that human beings, without discrimination, should enjoy human rights and freedoms fundamental,

Considering that the United Nations has, on several occasions, shown the deep concern it feels for refugees and that it has been concerned to ensure that they can exercise the rights of their people to the fullest extent possible; man and fundamental freedoms,

Considering that it is desirable to revise and codify previous international agreements relating to the status of refugees and to extend the application of these instruments and the protection they constitute for refugees by means of a new agreement,

Considering that the granting of the right of asylum may result in exceptionally heavy burdens for certain countries and that the satisfactory solution of the problems of which the United Nations has recognized the international scope and character, cannot, in this regard, hypothesis, be obtained without international solidarity, 

Expressing the wish that all States, recognizing the social and humanitarian character of the refugee problem, do everything in their power to prevent this problem from becoming a cause of tension between States,

Acknowledging that the task of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is to ensure the application of international conventions which ensure the protection of refugees, and recognizing that the effective coordination of measures taken to resolve this problem will depend on cooperation States with the High Commissioner,

Have agreed on the following provisions:

Chapter 1 – General provisions

First article. – Definition of the term “refugee”
A. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “refugee” shall apply to any person:

1 ) Who has been considered a refugee in application of the Arrangements of May 12, 1926 and June 30, 1928, or in application of the Conventions of October 28, 1933 and February 10, 1938 and the Protocol of September 14, 1939, or even in application of the Constitution of the International Refugee Organization.

Decisions of non-eligibility taken by the International Refugee Organization during the term of its mandate shall not prevent the status of refugee from being granted to persons who fulfill the conditions provided for in paragraph 2 of this section.

2 ) Who, as a result of events which took place before January 1, 1951 and with a justified fear of persecution on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a certain social group or their political opinions , is outside the country of which he is a national and which cannot or, because of this fear, does not wish to claim the protection of that country; or who, if he does not have a nationality and is outside the country in which he had his habitual residence as a result of such events, cannot or, because of the aforementioned fear, does not wish to return there.

In the case of a person who has more than one nationality, the expression “of the country of which he is a national” covers each of the countries of which that person is a national. Any person who, without a valid reason based on a justified fear, has not claimed the protection of one of the countries of which he is a national, will not be considered as deprived of the protection of the country of which he is a national.

B. 1 ) For the purposes of this Convention, the words “events occurring before January 1, 1951” in article 1, section A, may be understood to mean either a ) “events occurring before January 1, 1951 in Europe “, or b )” events occurring before January 1, 1951 in Europe or elsewhere “; and each Contracting State shall, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, make a declaration specifying the scope which it intends to give to that expression from the point of view of the obligations assumed by it under this Convention.

2 ) Any Contracting State which has adopted formula a may at any time extend its obligations by adopting formula b by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 

C. This Agreement shall cease, in the following cases, to be applicable to any person covered by the provisions of section A above:

1 ) If she has voluntarily claimed again the protection of the country of which she is a national; or 

2 ) If, having lost her nationality, she has voluntarily regained it; or 

3 ) If she has acquired a new nationality and enjoys the protection of the country of which she has acquired the nationality; or 

4 ) If she has returned voluntarily to settle in the country she left or outside of which she remained for fear of persecution; or 

5 ) If, the circumstances following which she was recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, she can no longer continue to refuse to claim the protection of the country of her nationality; 

Provided, however, that the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any refugee referred to in paragraph 1 of section A of this article who may invoke, in order to refuse to claim the protection of the country of which he is a national, compelling reasons relating to previous persecutions; 

6 ) In the case of a person who does not have a nationality, if, the circumstances following which he was recognized as a refugee having ceased to exist, he is able to return to the country in which he was his habitual residence; 

Provided, however, that the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any refugee referred to in paragraph 1 of section A of this article who may invoke, in order to refuse to return to the country in which he had his habitual residence, compelling reasons relating to previous persecutions. 

D. This Convention shall not apply to persons who are currently benefiting from protection or assistance from a United Nations body or agency other than the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

When this protection or assistance has ceased for any reason, without the fate of these persons having been definitively settled, in accordance with the related resolutions adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, these persons shall benefit as of right from the regime of this Convention. 

E. This Convention shall not be applicable to a person considered by the competent authorities of the country in which that person has established his residence as having the rights and obligations attached to the possession of the nationality of that country. 

F. The provisions of this Convention shall not be applicable to persons for whom there are serious reasons for believing: 

(a ) They have committed a crime against peace, a war crime or a rhyme against humanity, within the meaning of the international instruments drawn up to provide for provisions relating to such crimes; 

b ) They have committed a serious common law crime outside the host country before being admitted there as refugees; 

(c ) They are guilty of acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 

Article 2. – General obligations  

Every refugee has, with regard to the country in which he finds himself, duties which include in particular the obligation to comply with the laws and regulations as well as with the measures taken for the maintenance of public order.

Article 3. – Non-discrimination 
Contracting States shall apply the provisions of this Convention to refugees without discrimination as to race, religion or country of origin.

Article 4. – Religion

The Contracting States shall accord to refugees in their territory treatment at least as favorable as that accorded to nationals with regard to the freedom to practice their religion and with regard to the freedom of religious instruction of their children.

Article 5. – Rights granted independently of this Convention

Nothing in this Convention affects other rights and benefits granted, apart from this Convention, to refugees.

Article 6. – The expression “in the same circumstances”

For the purposes of this Convention, the words “in the same circumstances” imply that all the conditions (and in particular those relating to the duration and the conditions of stay or residence) which the person concerned would have to fulfill, in order to be able to exercise the right in question, if he was not a refugee, must be fulfilled by him except for those conditions which, by reason of their nature, cannot be fulfilled by a refugee.

Article 7. – Exemption from reciprocity 
1. Subject to the more favorable provisions of this Convention, any Contracting State shall accord to refugees the treatment which it accords to aliens in general. 

2. After a period of residence of three years, all refugees shall benefit, in the territory of the Contracting States, from the exemption from legislative reciprocity.

3. Any Contracting State shall continue to grant to refugees the rights and advantages to which they were already entitled, in the absence of reciprocity, on the date of entry into force of this Convention for that State. 

4. The Contracting States will consider with kindness the possibility of granting to refugees, in the absence of reciprocity, rights and advantages in addition to those to which they are entitled under paragraphs 2 and 3, as well as the possibility of making the benefit of the refugee protection. reciprocity exemption for refugees who do not meet the conditions referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 above apply both to the rights and advantages referred to in Articles 13, 18, 19, 21 and 22 of this Convention and to the rights and advantages which are not provided for therein.

Article 8. – Exemption from exceptional measures

With regard to the exceptional measures which may be taken against the person, property or interests of the nationals of a given State, the Contracting States shall not apply these measures to a refugee who is formally a national of that State solely because of his nationality. . Contracting States which by their law cannot apply the general principle enshrined in this article shall in appropriate cases grant exemptions in favor of such refugees. 

Article 9. – Provisional measures

Nothing in this Convention shall have the effect of preventing a Contracting State, in time of war or in other serious and exceptional circumstances, from taking provisionally, with regard to a specific person, the measures which that State considers indispensable to national security, pending it being established by the said Contracting State that this person is in fact a refugee and that the maintenance of such measures is necessary in his regard in the interest of its national security.

Article 10. – Continuity of residence 
1. Where a refugee has been deported during the Second World War and transported to the territory of one of the Contracting States and resides there, the duration of this forced stay shall count as lawful residence in that territory. 

2. When a refugee was deported from the territory of a Contracting State during the Second World War and returned there before the entry into force of this Convention to establish his residence there, the period preceding and following this deportation will be considered, for all purposes for which uninterrupted residence is necessary, as constituting only one uninterrupted period.

Article 11. – Refugee seafarers

In the case of refugees regularly employed as members of the crew on board a ship flying the flag of a Contracting State, that State will give kindly consideration to the possibility of allowing the said refugees to settle in its territory and to issue them travel documents or to admit them on a temporary basis on its territory, in order, in particular, to facilitate their establishment in another country.

 

Chapter II – Legal condition 
Article 12. – Personal status 

 

1. The personal status of any refugee shall be governed by the law of the country of his domicile or, in the absence of domicile, by the law of the country of his residence.

2. The rights previously acquired by the refugee and deriving from the personal status, and in particular those resulting from marriage, shall be respected by any Contracting State, subject, where appropriate, to the completion of the formalities provided for by the legislation of that State, it being understood, however, that the right in question must be one which would have been recognized by the legislation of that State if the person concerned had not become a refugee. 

Article 13. – Movable and immovable property
The Contracting States shall accord to any refugee treatment as favorable as possible and in any event treatment no less favorable than that accorded, in the same circumstances, to aliens in general with regard to the acquisition of property. movable and immovable property and other rights relating thereto, rental and other contracts relating to movable and immovable property.

Article 14. – Intellectual and industrial property
With regard to the protection of industrial property, in particular inventions, designs, models, trademarks, trade names, and with regard to the protection of literary, artistic and scientific property, any refugee shall benefit in the country where he has his residence customary protection afforded to nationals of that country. In the territory of any of the other Contracting States, he shall enjoy the protection accorded in that territory to nationals of the country in which he has his habitual residence.

Article 15. – Right of association 
The Contracting States shall accord to refugees who reside lawfully in their territory, as regards non-political and non-profit associations and professional unions, the most favorable treatment accorded to nationals of a foreign country in the same circumstances.
Article 16. – Right to institute legal proceedings
1. Every refugee shall have free and easy access to the courts in the territory of the Contracting States.

2. In the Contracting State in which he has his habitual residence, a refugee shall enjoy the same treatment as a national with regard to access to courts, including legal aid and exemption from the surety judicatum solvi .

3. In Contracting States other than that in which he has his habitual residence, and with regard to the matters referred to in paragraph 2, every refugee shall enjoy the same treatment as a national of the country in which he has his habitual residence.

 

Chapter III – Profitable employment 
Article 17. – Salaried professions 

 

1. The Contracting States shall accord to any refugee lawfully residing in their territory the most favorable treatment accorded, in the same circumstances, to nationals of a foreign country with regard to the exercise of a salaried professional activity. 

2. In any case, the restrictive measures imposed on foreigners or on the employment of foreigners for the protection of the national labor market will not be applicable to refugees who were already exempt from them on the date of entry into force of this regulation. Convention by the Contracting State concerned, or which meet one of the following conditions: 

a ) Have three years of residence in the country; 

b ) Have as a spouse a person possessing the nationality of the country of residence. A refugee could not invoke the benefit of this provision if he had abandoned his spouse;

c ) Have one or more children possessing the nationality of the country of residence. 

3. The Contracting States will consider with kindness the adoption of measures tending to assimilate the rights of all refugees with regard to the exercise of salaried professions with those of their nationals, in particular for refugees who have entered their territory. under a workforce recruitment program or an immigration plan. 

Article 18. – Self-employed professions 
The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully in their territory treatment as favorable as possible and in any case treatment no less favorable than that accorded in the same circumstances to aliens in general, with regard to the exercise of a profession. self-employed in agriculture, industry, crafts and commerce, as well as the creation of commercial and industrial companies.

Article 19. – Liberal professions 
1. Each Contracting State shall accord to refugees lawfully residing in its territory, who hold diplomas recognized by the competent authorities of that State and who wish to exercise a liberal profession, treatment as favorable as possible and in any case treatment not less favorable than that granted, in the same circumstances, to foreigners in general. 

2. The Contracting States will do everything in their power, in accordance with their laws and constitutions, to ensure the installation of such refugees in the territories, other than the metropolitan territory, for which they assume responsibility for international relations.

 

Chapter IV – Well-being 
Article 20. – Rationing 

 

In the event that there is a rationing system to which the population as a whole is subject and which regulates the general distribution of products of which there is a shortage, refugees will be treated as nationals.

Article 21. – Accommodation 
As regards accommodation, the Contracting States shall accord, in so far as this matter falls within the scope of laws and regulations or is subject to the control of public authorities, to refugees lawfully residing in their territory as favorable treatment as possible; in any case, this treatment cannot be less favorable than that accorded, in the same circumstances, to foreigners in general.

Article 22. – Public education 
1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees the same treatment as to nationals with regard to primary education.
2. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees treatment as favorable as possible, and in any case no less favorable than that accorded to foreigners in general in the same circumstances as regards categories of education other than primary education and in particular in as regards access to studies, recognition of study certificates, diplomas and university titles issued abroad, the remission of duties and taxes and the award of study grants.

Article 23. – Public assistance 
The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully resident in their territory the same treatment in matters of public assistance and relief as to their nationals.

Article 24. – Labor legislation and social security 
1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully resident in their territory the same treatment as to nationals with regard to the following matters: 

a ) Insofar as these matters are regulated by law or depend on the administrative authorities: remuneration, including family allowances when these allowances are part of remuneration, working hours, overtime, paid holidays, restrictions on home work, the age of admission to employment, apprenticeship and vocational training, the work of women and adolescents and the enjoyment of the advantages offered by collective agreements;

b ) Social security (legal provisions relating to accidents at work, occupational diseases, maternity, sickness, invalidity, old age and death, unemployment, family charges, as well as any other risk which, in accordance with national law, is covered by a social security system), subject to:

i ) Appropriate arrangements for the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in the course of acquisition;

ii ) Special provisions prescribed by the national legislation of the country of residence and relating to the benefits or fractions of benefits payable exclusively from public funds, as well as the allowances paid to persons who do not meet the contribution conditions required for the allocation of ‘a normal pension. 

2. The rights to benefits opened up by the death of a refugee resulting from an industrial accident or an occupational disease will not be affected by the fact that the beneficiary resides outside the territory of the State. contracting party.
3. The Contracting States shall extend to refugees the benefit of agreements which they have concluded or come to conclude between themselves, concerning the maintenance of acquired rights or in the process of being acquired in matters of social security, provided that the refugees meet the conditions. planned for the nationals of the signatory countries of the agreements in question.

4. The Contracting States will give kindly consideration to the possibility of extending, as far as possible, to refugees the benefit of similar agreements which are or will be in force between these Contracting States and non-Contracting States.

 

Chapter V – Administrative measures 
Article 25. – Administrative assistance

 1. Where the exercise of a right by a refugee would normally require the assistance of foreign authorities to which he cannot have recourse, the Contracting States in whose territory he resides shall ensure that such assistance is provided to him either by their own authorities. or by an international authority.

 2. The authority or authorities referred to in paragraph 1 shall issue or cause to be issued, under their supervision, to refugees the documents or certificates which would normally be issued to a foreigner by its national authorities or through them.
3. The documents or certificates thus issued shall replace the official documents issued to foreigners by their national authorities or through them, and shall be authentic until proven otherwise.
4. Subject to the exceptions which may be allowed in favor of the indigent, the services mentioned in this article may be remunerated; but these payments will be moderate and in relation to the collections made on the nationals on the occasion of similar services.
5. The provisions of this article in no way affect articles 27 and 28.
Article 26. – Freedom of movement

Any Contracting State shall grant refugees lawfully in its territory the right to choose their place of residence and to move freely there, subject to the reservations established by the regulations applicable to aliens in general in the same circumstances.
Article 27. – Identity documents

The Contracting States will issue identity documents to any refugee in their territory who does not have a valid travel document.
Article 28. – Travel documents

1. The Contracting States shall issue to refugees lawfully resident in their territory travel documents intended to enable them to travel outside that territory, unless overriding reasons of national security or public order prevent this; the provisions of the appendix to this Convention will apply to these documents. Contracting States may issue a travel document to any other refugee in their territory; they will pay particular attention to cases of refugees in their territory who are unable to obtain a travel document from the country of their legal residence.

2. Travel documents issued under previous international agreements by the parties to such agreements shall be recognized by the Contracting States and treated as if they had been issued to refugees under this article.

 Article 29. – Tax charges
1. The Contracting States shall not subject refugees to duties, taxes or charges, under any denomination whatsoever, other or higher than those which are or which will be levied on their nationals in similar situations.

2. The provisions of the preceding paragraph do not preclude the application to refugees of the provisions of the laws and regulations concerning taxes relating to the issue to foreigners of administrative documents, including identity documents.

 Article 30. – Transfer of assets

1. Any Contracting State shall allow refugees, in accordance with the laws and regulations of their country, to transfer the assets which they have brought into its territory to the territory of another country to which they have been admitted in order to resettle there. .

2. Each Contracting State will give its benevolent attention to requests presented by refugees who wish to obtain authorization to transfer any other assets necessary for their resettlement in another country where they have been admitted in order to resettle there.

 Article 31. – Refugees in an irregular situation in the host country 

1. The Contracting States shall not apply penal sanctions, by reason of their illegal entry or stay, to refugees who, arriving directly from the territory where their life or freedom was threatened within the meaning provided for in Article 1, enter or are in their territory without authorization, on condition that they present themselves without delay to the authorities and explain to them the reasons recognized as valid for their irregular entry or presence.
2. The Contracting States shall not apply to the movement of such refugees other restrictions than those necessary; these restrictions will be applied only until the status of these refugees in the host country has been regularized or until they have successfully been admitted to another country. With a view to the latter admission, the Contracting States shall grant these refugees a reasonable period of time and all necessary facilities.
Article 32. – Expulsion 

1. The Contracting States shall only expel a refugee lawfully in their territory for reasons of national security or public order.

2. The expulsion of this refugee shall take place only in execution of a decision rendered in accordance with the procedure by law. The refugee must, unless overriding national security reasons prevent it, be allowed to provide evidence tending to exonerate him, to present an appeal and to be represented for this purpose before a competent authority or before one or more persons. specially designated by the competent authority.
3. The Contracting States shall grant such a refugee a reasonable period of time to enable him to seek regular admission to another country. The Contracting States may apply, during this period, such internal measure as they deem appropriate.
Article 33. – Defense of expulsion and refoulement

1. None of the Contracting States shall expel or return in any way whatsoever a refugee to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race, religion, nationality, his membership of a certain social group or his political opinions.
2. The benefit of this provision may not, however, be invoked by a refugee whom there are serious reasons for considering as a danger to the security of the country where he is or which, having been the subject of a conviction final for a particularly serious felony or misdemeanor constitutes a threat to the community of that country.
Article 34. – Naturalization 

The Contracting States shall facilitate, as far as possible, the assimilation and naturalization of refugees. In particular, they will endeavor to speed up the naturalization procedure and to reduce, as far as possible, the taxes and costs of this procedure.

 

Chapter VI – Enforceable and transitional provisions

Article 35. – Cooperation of national authorities with the United Nations

 

1. The Contracting States undertake to co-operate with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or any successor United Nations agency, in the exercise of its functions and in particular to facilitate its task of monitoring the application of the provisions of this Convention.

 2. In order to enable the Office of the High Commissioner or any other United Nations agency which succeeds it to submit reports to the competent United Nations bodies, the Contracting States undertake to provide them in the appropriate form with the information and statistical data requested. relative:
a ) The status of refugees,
b ) the implementation of this Convention, and
c ) Laws, regulations and decrees which are or will come into force with regard to refugees.
Article 36. – Information on national laws and regulations

The Contracting States shall communicate to the Secretary-General of the United Nations the text of the laws and regulations which they may promulgate to ensure the application of this Convention.

Article 37. – Relationship with previous agreements
Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 2 of article 28, this Convention replaces, between the parties to the Convention, the agreements of July 5, 1922, May 31, 1924, May 12, 1926, June 30, 1928 and July 30, 1935, as well as the Conventions of October 28, 1933, February 10, 1938, the Protocol of September 14, 1939 and the Agreement of October 15, 1946.

 

Chapter VII – Final clauses 
Article 38. – Settlement of disputes 

 

Any dispute between the parties to this Convention relating to its interpretation or application which cannot be settled by other means shall be submitted to the International Court of Justice at the request of one of the parties to the dispute.
Article 39. – Signature, ratification and accession
1. This Convention shall be opened for signature at Geneva on July 28, 1951 and, after that date, deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. It will be opened for signature at the European Office of the United Nations from July 28 to August 31, 1951, then reopened for signature at United Nations Headquarters from September 17, 1951 to December 31, 1952.
2. This Convention shall be open for signature by all States Members of the United Nations and any other non-member State invited to the Plenipotentiary Conference on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons or of any State to which the General Assembly will have sent an invitation to sign. It will need to be ratified and the instruments of ratification will be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. The States referred to in paragraph 2 of this article may accede to this Convention as from July 28, 1951. Accession shall be effected by depositing an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 40. – Territorial application clause 
1. Any State may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, declare that this Convention shall extend to all the territories which it represents at the international level, or to one or more of them. Such a declaration shall take effect upon the entry into force of the Convention for the said State. 

2. At any later time, this extension shall be effected by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and shall take effect from the ninetieth day following the date on which the Secretary-General of the United Nations has received the notification or at the date of entry into force of the Convention for that State if the latter date is later.
3. With regard to the territories to which this Convention does not apply on the date of signature, ratification or accession, each State concerned shall examine the possibility of taking as soon as possible all necessary measures in order to bring about the application of the Convention. this Convention to the said territories subject, where appropriate, to the consent of the governments of those territories which may be required for constitutional reasons.
Article 41. – Federal clause 

In the case of a federative or non-unitary state, the following provisions will apply:
a ) With regard to the articles of this Convention, the implementation of which comes under the legislative action of the federal legislative power, the obligations of the federal government shall, to this extent, be the same as those of the parties which are not States federative;
b ) With regard to the articles of this Convention, the application of which comes under the legislative action of each of the constituent states, provinces or cantons, which are not, by virtue of the constitutional system of the federation, required to take measures legislative, the federal government will bring as soon as possible, and with its favorable opinion, the aforementioned articles to the knowledge of the competent authorities of the States, provinces or cantons;
c ) A federative State party to this Convention shall communicate, at the request of any other Contracting State transmitted to it by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, a statement of the laws and practices in force in the federation and its constituent units in with regard to a particular provision of the Convention, indicating the extent to which effect has been given, by legislative or other action, to the said provision.
Article 42. – Reservations 
1. At the time of signature, ratification or accession, any State may make reservations to articles of the Convention other than articles 1, 3, 4, 16 (1), 33, 36 to 46 inclusive.
2. Any Contracting State which has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article may at any time withdraw it by a communication to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 43. – Entry into force 

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of the sixth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each of the States which ratify or accede to the Convention after the deposit of the sixth instrument of ratification or accession, it shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit by that State of its instrument of ratification. ratification or accession.
Article 44. – Denunciation

1. Any Contracting State may denounce the Convention at any time by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

 2. The denunciation shall take effect for the State concerned one year after the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. Any State which has made a declaration or notification in accordance with article 40 may subsequently notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations that the Convention will cease to apply to any territory specified in the notification. The Convention will then cease to apply to the territory in question one year after the date on which the Secretary General receives this notification.
Article 45. – Revision 
1. Any Contracting State may at any time, by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, request the revision of this Convention.
2. The United Nations General Assembly will recommend action, if any, to be taken with respect to this request.
Article 46. – Notification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify all Member States of the United Nations and non-member States referred to in article 39 of:
(a ) The declarations and notifications referred to in section B of article 1;
b ) The signatures, ratifications and accessions referred to in article 39;
(c ) The declarations and notifications referred to in article 40;
(d ) Reservations formulated or withdrawn referred to in article 42;
(e ) The date on which this Convention comes into force, in accordance with article 43;
(f ) The denunciations and notifications referred to in article 44;
g ) Requests for review referred to in article 45.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention on behalf of their respective governments.
Done at Geneva this twenty-eighth day of July one thousand nine hundred and fifty-one, in a single copy, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic, which shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations, and of which certified true copies shall be issued to all States Members of the United Nations and to non-member States referred to in Article 39.

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