vienna convention on the protection of the ozone layer
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VIENNA CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER

1

Vienna Convention

for the protection of the ozone layer

Concluded in Vienna on March 22, 1985

(Status June 7, 2005)

Preamble

The Parties to this Convention,

Aware of the negative impact that could have on human health and

the environment any modification of the ozone layer,

Recalling the relevant provisions of the Declaration of the Conference of Nations

United Nations on the Environment, and in particular Principle 21, where it is stipulated that,

in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations2 and the principles of international law,

“States have the sovereign right to exploit their own resources according to their policy

environment and that they have a duty to ensure that the activities carried out

within the limits of their jurisdiction or under their control do not cause

damage to the environment in other states or in areas not covered by

no national jurisdiction ‘,

Taking into account the particular situation and needs of developing countries,

Bearing in mind the work and studies in progress within organizations

international as well as national and, in particular, the Global Plan of Action for

United Nations Environment Program ozone layer,

Also bearing in mind the precautionary measures already taken at the national level

and international for the protection of the ozone layer,

Aware that the adoption of measures to protect the ozone layer from changes

attributable to human activities can only be done in the context

international cooperation and action, and should be evidence-based

relevant scientific and technical,

Also aware of the need for further research and observations

systematic in order to develop scientific knowledge on

the ozone layer and the harmful effects that its disturbance could cause,

Determined to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects

resulting from changes in the ozone layer,

Have agreed as follows:

RO 1988 1752; FF 1987 I 721

1 Art. 1 al. 1 of the AF of September 30, 1987 (RO 1988 1751)

2 RS 0.120

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Original text

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Art. 1 Definitions

For the purposes of this Convention:

1. The term “ozone layer” means the atmospheric ozone layer present

above the planet’s boundary layer.

2. By “adverse effects” we mean changes to the environment.

physical or biota, including climate change, which

exert significant harmful effects on human health or on the composition,

the resistance and productivity of natural or managed ecosystems,

or on materials useful to humanity.

3. By “replacement technology or equipment” is meant a technology

or a material the use of which makes it possible to reduce or practically exclude

emissions of substances having or likely to have harmful effects

on the ozone layer.

4. The term “replacement substances” means substances which reduce,

eliminate or avoid harmful effects on the ozone layer.

5. The term “Parties” means the Parties to this Convention, unless the

text does not impose another interpretation.

6. By “regional economic integration organization” is meant a

organization formed by sovereign States of a given region which has

competence in areas governed by the Convention or its protocols and

has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify,

accept, approve or accede to the Convention or its protocols.

7. “Protocols” means protocols to this Convention.

Art. 2 General obligations

1. The Parties shall take appropriate measures in accordance with the provisions of

this Convention and the protocols in force to which they are parties for

protect human health and the environment from adverse effects resulting from or

likely to result from human activities which modify or are likely to

change the ozone layer.

2. To this end, the Parties, according to the means at their disposal and according to their possibilities:

a) Cooperate, through systematic observations, research and

exchange of information in order to better understand and appreciate the effects

human activities on the ozone layer and the effects on the

human health and the environment through modification of the ozone layer;

b) Adopt appropriate legislative or administrative measures and cooperate

to harmonize the appropriate policies aimed at regulating, limiting,

reduce or prevent human activities under their jurisdiction or

their control if it turns out that these activities have or are likely to have

adverse effects as a result of the modification, or modification likely

to occur, the ozone layer;

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c) Cooperate in formulating agreed measures, procedures and standards for

the application of this Convention with a view to adopting protocols and

annexes;

d) Cooperate with the competent international bodies to apply

effectively this Convention and the protocols to which they are

parts.

3. The provisions of this Convention have no effect on the law of the Parties.

adopt, in accordance with international law, more rigorous domestic measures

than those referred to in by. 1 and 2 above and likewise have no effect on the measurements

internal measures already taken by a Party, provided that these measures

are not incompatible with the obligations of the said Parties under this

Convention.

4. The application of this article is based on scientific considerations and

relevant techniques.

Art. 3 Research and systematic observations

1. The Parties undertake, as appropriate, to undertake research and

scientific evaluations or to cooperate in carrying out research and evaluations

scientists, directly or through international bodies

competent in:

a) The physical and chemical processes that can influence the layer

ozone;

b) The effects on human health and other biological effects of any

changes in the ozone layer, especially those resulting from changes

ultraviolet radiation of solar origin having a biological action

(UV-B);

(c) The impact on the climate of any change in the ozone layer;

d) The effects of any modification of the ozone layer and modifications

UV-B radiation which results from it on natural and synthetic materials

useful to humanity;

e) Substances, practices, processes and activities that may influence the

ozone layer, and their cumulative effects;

(f) Alternative substances and technologies;

(g) Related socio-economic problems;

and as specified in Annexes I and II.

2. The Parties undertake to promote or establish, as appropriate,

directly or through competent international bodies and taking

full account of their national legislation and relevant activities both

at national and international levels, joint or complementary programs

for systematic observations of the state of the ozone layer and other

relevant parameters, in accordance with the provisions of Annex I.

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3. The Parties undertake to cooperate, directly or through bodies

competent international authorities, to ensure the collection, validation and transmission

data obtained by research and data observed, through

appropriate global data centers on a regular basis and without undue delay.

Art. 4 Cooperation in the legal, scientific and technical fields

1. The Parties shall facilitate and encourage the exchange of scientific information,

appropriate technical, socio-economic, commercial and legal purposes for the purposes of

this Convention and as specified in Annex II. This information is provided

to bodies approved by the Parties. Any body that receives information

considered confidential by the Party providing them, ensure that they do not

are not disclosed and aggregate them in order to protect their confidentiality before

to make them available to all Parties.

2. The Parties shall cooperate, in accordance with their laws, regulations and practices.

national, and taking into account, in particular, the needs of developing countries,

to promote, directly or through international bodies

skills, the development and transfer of technology and

knowledge. Cooperation will be carried out in particular by the following means:

(a) Facilitate the acquisition of alternative technologies by other Parties;

b) Provide information on alternative technologies and equipment

and special manuals or guides about them;

c) Provide research and observation equipment and facilities

systematic necessary;

d) Ensure the appropriate training of scientific and technical personnel.

Art. 5 Disclosure of information

The Parties transmit to the Conference of the Parties established by art. 6, by

through the secretariat, information on the measures they have taken

adopted in application of this Convention and the protocols to which they

are parties, the form and frequency of such reports being determined by the meetings

Parties to the relevant instruments.

Art. 6 Conference of the Parties

1. This article establishes a Conference of the Parties. The first meeting of the

Conference of the Parties will be convened by the provisionally appointed secretariat,

in accordance with art. 7, at the latest one year after the entry into force of this

Convention. Subsequently, ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties will have

held regularly, at the frequency determined by the Conference at its first

meeting.

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2. Extraordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties may be held at

any other time if the Conference deems it necessary, or at the written request of a

Party, provided that this request is supported by at least one third of the Parties

within six months of its communication to the said Parties by the secretariat.

3. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and adopt by consensus its own rules.

internal rules and its own financial regulations, internal regulations and regulations

financial resources of any subsidiary body it may create and the provisions

which will govern the functioning of the secretariat.

4. The Conference of the Parties shall continuously review the implementation of this

Convention and, in addition:

a) Establish the form and frequency of the communication of information to

be presented in accordance with art. 5 and review this information

as well as reports presented by any subsidiary body;

b) Study scientific information on the state of the ozone layer,

its possible modification and the possible effects of this modification;

c) Promotes, in accordance with art. 2, harmonization of policies, strategies

and appropriate measures to minimize releases of substances which

modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer, and makes recommendations

on all other measures related to this

Convention;

d) Adopts, in accordance with art. 3 and 4, research programs,

systematic observations, scientific and technical cooperation,

exchange of information and transfer of technology and knowledge;

e) Consider and adopt, as appropriate, amendments to this

Convention and its annexes, in accordance with art. 9 and 10;

f) Consider amendments to any protocol and annexes to any protocol and,

if so decided, recommend their adoption to the parties to the protocol

relevant;

(g) Consider and adopt, as appropriate, additional annexes to the

this Convention in accordance with art. 10;

h) Consider and adopt, as appropriate, protocols in accordance with art.

8;

i) Establish subsidiary bodies deemed necessary for the implementation of this

Convention;

j) Ensure, as appropriate, the services of international organizations and

competent scientific committees and, in particular, those of the Organization

meteorological, from the World Health Organization, as well as

of the Coordinating Committee for the Ozone Layer, for research

scientific, systematic observations and other compliant activities

the objectives of this Convention; she also uses, depending on whether

agrees, the information from these bodies and committees;

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k) Examine and take any other action necessary for the pursuit of the objectives

of this Convention.

5. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Agency

atomic energy, as well as any State which is not a party to this

Convention, may be represented at meetings of the Conference of

Parties by observers. Any national or international body or body,

governmental or non-governmental qualified in fields related to protection

of the ozone layer, which informed the secretariat of its desire to be represented

at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties as an observer may be

admitted to take part unless at least one third of the Parties present do

objection. The admission and participation of observers are subject to the

compliance with the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.

Art. 7 The secretariat

1. The functions of the secretariat are as follows:

a) Organize the meetings of the Parties in accordance with art. 6, 8, 9 and 10 and in

provide service;

b) Prepare and transmit a report based on the information received

in accordance with art. 4 and 5 as well as the information obtained from

the occasion of the meetings of the subsidiary bodies established under art. 6;

c) Perform the functions assigned to it under any protocol to

this agreement;

d) To prepare reports on the activities carried out in the exercise of the functions

assigned to it under this Convention and present them

to the Conference of the Parties;

e) Ensure the necessary coordination with other international organizations

competent authorities, and in particular to conclude the administrative arrangements and

contractual that may be necessary for him to discharge effectively

of its functions;

f) Perform such other functions as the Conference of the Parties may

decide to assign it.

2. The functions of the secretariat will be carried out provisionally by the Program of

United Nations Environment until the end of the first regular meeting

of the Conference of the Parties held in accordance with art. 6. At its first meeting

ordinary, the Conference of the Parties shall designate the secretariat from among the organizations

competent international organizations who would have volunteered to perform the functions of

secretariat provided for in this Convention.

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Art. 8 Adoption of protocols

1. The Conference of the Parties may, at a meeting, adopt protocols to the

this Convention, in accordance with art. 2.

2. The text of any proposed protocol shall be communicated by the secretariat to the Parties.

at least six months before said meeting.

Art. 9 Amendments to the Convention or protocols

1. Any Party may propose amendments to this Convention or to any

any of the protocols. These amendments take due account, inter alia, of

relevant scientific and technical considerations.

2. Amendments to this Convention shall be adopted at a meeting of the

Conference of the Parties. Amendments to a protocol are adopted at a meeting

of the Parties to the protocol in question. The text of any proposed amendment to this

Convention or any of the Protocols, except as otherwise provided in the

protocol considered, is communicated by the secretariat to the Parties at least six months

before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The secretariat communicates

also the amendments proposed to the signatories of this Convention for information.

3. The Parties shall spare no effort to achieve, with regard to any

proposed amendment to this Convention, to agreement by consensus. If all

efforts to reach consensus have been exhausted and if agreement has not been reached,

the amendment is adopted as a last resort by a three-quarters majority vote

of the Parties present at the meeting and having cast their votes, and submitted by the depositary

to all Parties for ratification, approval or acceptance.

4. The procedure exposed in the by. 3 above is applicable to amendments to any

protocol to the Convention, except that a two-thirds majority of the parties to the protocol

considered present at the meeting and having cast their vote is sufficient to

their adoption.

5. Ratification, approval or acceptance of amendments is notified by

written to the custodian. The amendments adopted in accordance with by. 3 or 4

above come into force between the parties having accepted them on the ninetieth

day after the depositary receives notification of their ratification, approval

or acceptance by at least three quarters of the parties hereto

Convention or by at least two-thirds of the parties to the protocol in question, except

contrary provision of the protocol in question. Subsequently, the amendments enter

in force with respect to any other Party on the ninetieth day after filing

by that Party of its instrument of ratification, approval or acceptance

amendments.

6. For the purposes of this article, the expression “Parties present at the meeting and having

expressed their vote ”means the Parties present at the meeting which have cast a vote

affirmative or negative.

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Art. 10 Adoption of the annexes and amendment of these annexes

1. The Annexes to this Convention or to any of the Protocols make

an integral part of the Convention or of said protocol, as the case may be, and, unless otherwise provided

to the contrary, any reference to this Convention or to the protocols

is also a reference to the annexes to these instruments. The said annexes are limited

scientific, technical and administrative matters.

2. Unless otherwise provided in any protocol concerning its own annexes, the

proposal, adoption and entry into force of additional annexes to this

Convention or annexes to a protocol are governed by the following procedure:

a) The annexes to this Convention are proposed and adopted in accordance with

procedure described in par. 2 and 3 of art. 9; the annexes to any protocol are

proposed and adopted according to the procedure described in paras. 2 and 4 of art. 9;

b) Any party that is unable to approve an additional annex

to this Convention or an annex to any of the protocols

to which it is a party gives written notification to the depositary within

six months following the date of communication of the adoption by the depositary.

The latter immediately informs all parties of any notification received.

A party may at any time accept an annex to which it had

previously declared to object, and this annex then enters into force

with respect to this part;

c) At the end of a period of six months from the date of dispatch of the

communication by the depositary, the annex takes effect with respect to all

Parties to this Convention or to the protocol concerned which have not

subject to notification in accordance with para. b) above.

3. The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to the annexes to the

this Convention or any of the protocols are subject to the same

procedure that the proposal, adoption and entry into force of the annexes to the

Convention or any of the Protocols. Appendices and amendments y

relating to take due account, inter alia, of scientific considerations and

relevant techniques.

4. If an additional annex or an amendment to an annex involves a

amendment to the Convention or to a protocol, the additional annex or

the amended Annex does not enter into force until such amendment to the Convention

or the protocol considered itself comes into force.

Art. 11 Dispute resolution

1. In the event of a dispute between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the

this Convention, the parties concerned shall seek a solution by way of

negotiation.

2. If the parties concerned cannot reach an agreement through negotiation,

they can jointly appeal to the good offices of a third

party or ask for mediation.

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3. When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention, any State

or regional economic integration organization may declare in writing to the

Depositary that, in the case of disputes which have not been settled in accordance with the

by. 1 or 2 above, he agrees to consider as mandatory one or the other or

the two payment methods below:

a) Arbitration, in accordance with the procedure to be adopted by the Conference

of the Parties at its first ordinary session;

b) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.

4. If the Parties do not, in accordance with by. 3 above, accepted the same procedure

or proceedings, the dispute is submitted to conciliation in accordance with the

by. 5 below, unless the Parties agree otherwise.

5. A conciliation commission is created at the request of one of the parties to the

dispute. The commission is made up of a number of members appointed separately

equal by each of the parties concerned, the chairman being chosen by mutual agreement

by the members so designated. The commission renders an award which is without

appeal, has the value of a recommendation and the Parties examine it in good faith.

6. The provisions, which are the subject of this article, apply to any protocol, except for

contrary to the protocol in question.

Art. 12 Signature

This Convention is open for signature by States and organizations

regional economic integration at the Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Republic of Austria, in Vienna, from March 22, 1985 to September 21, 1985 and

United Nations Headquarters, New York, from September 22, 1985 to

March 21, 1986.

Art. 13 Ratification, acceptance or approval

1. This Convention and any protocol are subject to ratification, acceptance

or the approval of States and economic integration organizations

regional. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited

with the depositary.

2. Any organization referred to in by. 1 above which becomes Party to this

Convention or any protocol and to which no member State is itself a Party is

bound by all the obligations set out in the Convention or in the protocol, as

the case. When one or more Member States of one of these organizations are

Parties to the relevant Convention or protocol, the organization and its member states

agree on their respective responsibilities with regard to the execution

their obligations under the Convention or the protocol, as the case may be. In

such cases, the organization and the member states are not entitled to exercise simultaneously

their rights under the relevant Convention or protocol.

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3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval, organizations

referred to in by. 1 above indicate the extent of their competence in the

areas governed by the Convention or the relevant protocol. These organizations

also notify the depositary of any material change in the scope of

their skills.

Art. 14 Membership

1. This Convention and any protocol shall be open for accession by States and

regional economic integration organizations from the date on which the

Convention or protocol in question will no longer be open for signature. Instruments

membership will be deposited with the depositary.

2. In their instruments of membership, the organizations referred to in by. 1 above

indicate the extent of their competence in the fields governed by the Convention

or by the protocol considered. They also notify the depositary of any modification

important to the extent of their skills.

3. The provisions of by. 2 of art. 13 apply to integration organizations

regional economic organizations which accede to this Convention or to any protocol.

Art. 15 Right to vote

1. Each Party to the Convention or to any protocol has one vote.

2. Subject to the provisions of by. 1 above, integration organizations

regional economy have, to exercise their right to vote in the fields

which fall within their competence, with a number of votes equal to the number of their States

members who are Parties to the relevant Convention or protocol. These organizations

do not exercise their right to vote if their member states exercise theirs, and vice versa.

Art. 16 Relationship between the Convention and its protocols

1. No State or regional economic integration organization may

become party to a protocol without being or simultaneously becoming a party to the convention.

2. Decisions concerning any protocol are taken by the parties to the protocol only.

considered.

Art. 17 Entry into force

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the

date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval

or membership.

2. Unless the text of the protocol provides otherwise, any protocol shall enter

in force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the eleventh instrument

of ratification, acceptance or approval of said protocol or accession

said protocol.

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3. With regard to each Party which ratifies, accepts or approves this present

Convention, or accedes to it, after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification,

acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention will enter into force on

ninetieth day after the date of deposit by that Party of its instrument

of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

4. Any protocol, except as otherwise provided for in said protocol, shall enter into force for

a Party which ratifies, accepts or approves or accedes to such protocol after its entry

in force in accordance with par. 2 above the ninetieth day after

the date of deposit by that Party of its instrument of ratification, acceptance,

approval or accession, or the date on which the Convention enters into force

for the said Party, whichever of these dates will be the last.

5. For the purposes of by. 1 and 2 above, none of the instruments deposited by an organization

regional economic integration referred to in art. 12 should not be considered

as an instrument in addition to the instruments already deposited by States

members of the said organization.

Art. 18 Reservations

No reservation may be made to this Convention.

Art. 19 Denunciation

1. After the expiration of a period of four years from the date of entry into force

of this Convention in respect of a Party, that Party may at any time

when denouncing the Convention by written notification given to the depositary.

2. Unless otherwise provided in any of the Protocols, any Party may,

at any time after the expiration of four years from the date

entry into force of this protocol in its regard, denounce it by giving by

writes a notification to this effect to the depositary.

3. Any denunciation shall take effect after the expiration of a period of one year following the

date of its receipt by the depositary or any later date which may be

specified in the notice of termination.

4. Any Party which has denounced this Convention shall be considered as

having also denounced the protocols to which it is a party.

Art. 20 Custodian

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall assume the functions

depositary of this Convention and of the protocols.

2. The depositary informs the Parties in particular:

a) The signature of this Convention and any protocol, as well as the

deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or

membership in accordance with art. 13 and 14;

(b) The date of entry into force of the Convention and of any protocol in accordance with

to art. 17;

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c) Notifications of denunciation made in accordance with art. 19;

d) Amendments adopted with regard to the Convention and any protocol,

of the acceptance of these amendments by the Parties and of their date

entry into force in accordance with art. 9;

e) All communications relating to the adoption or approval

of annexes and their amendments in accordance with art. 10;

f) Notification by regional economic integration organizations

the extent of their skills in the areas governed by this

Convention and by any protocol, and any modification thereto;

g) The declarations provided for in art. 11.

Art. 21 Authentic texts

The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish texts,

French and Russian are equally authentic, will be deposited with the Secretary General

of the United Nations.

In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.

Done at Vienna on the twenty-second day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and eighty-five.

(Follow signatures)

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Annex I

Systematic research and observations

1. The Parties to the Convention recognize that the main scientific issues

are:

a) Changes in the ozone layer that would lead to a change in

the intensity of ultraviolet radiation of solar origin having an action

biological (UV-B) reaching the earth’s surface and the effects they could

have on the health of populations, organisms, ecosystems

and on materials useful to humanity;

b) Changes in the vertical distribution of ozone that would change the

thermal structure of the atmosphere and the meteorological consequences and

climatic conditions they might have.

2. The Parties to the Convention, in accordance with art. 3, will cooperate by making

research, making systematic observations and making recommendations

regarding future research and observations in areas

such as:

a) Research in the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere

i) Establishment of global theoretical models: further development

point of interactive models of radioactive, chemical and dynamic processes;

studies of the simultaneous effects of various chemicals

artificial or natural on atmospheric ozone, interpretation

series of measurements collected by satellite or otherwise;

evaluation of trends in atmospheric and geophysical parameters

and development of methods for attributing to causes

clearly determined the variations of these parameters;

ii) Laboratory studies on kinetic coefficients, cross sections

absorption and the chemical and photochemical processes in the

troposphere and stratosphere; the necessary spectroscopic data

the measurements made for all useful regions of the spectrum;

iii) Field measurements: concentrations and flows of essential source gases

of both natural and anthropogenic origin; dynamics study

of the atmosphere; simultaneous measurements of photochemically substances

related, descending to the planetary boundary layer, at the

means of in situ instruments and telemetry; comparison of various

detectors; coordinated correlation measurements for instruments

placed on board satellites; three-dimensional fields of constituents

essential traces, spectral solar flux and meteorological parameters;

iv) Production of instruments, in particular detectors on board satellites

and others for measuring the trace constituents of the atmosphere, the flux

solar and meteorological parameters.

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b) Research on health effects, biological effects and effects

photodegradation

i) Relationship between human exposure to visible solar radiation

or ultraviolet and a) the appearance of skin cancers other than melanoma

or malignant melanoma, and b) effects on the immune system;

ii) Effects of UV-B radiation, including relation to length

wave, on a) crops, forests and other terrestrial ecosystems and

b) on the aquatic food system and on fisheries, including

including with regard to the possible inhibition of the

oxygen production from marine phytoplankton;

iii) Mechanisms by which UV-B radiation acts on materials,

species and biological ecosystems, including: relationship between dose,

dose rate and response; photorepair, adaptation and protection;

iv) Studies on biological action spectra and spectral response to

using polychromatic radiation to determine interactions

possible of different wavelength zones;

v) Influence of UV-B radiation on: the sensitivity and activity of

biological species important for the balance of the biosphere; process

primaries such as photosynthesis and biosynthesis;

vi) Influence of UV-B radiation on the photodegradation of pollutants,

agricultural chemicals and other materials.

c) Research on effects on the climate

Theoretical studies and observational studies a) of the radiative effects of ozone

and other bodies present in trace amounts and effects on the parameters

climate, such as land and ocean surface temperatures,

the precipitation regime and the exchanges between the troposphere and the stratosphere;

and b) the effects of these climatic impacts on various aspects of

human activities.

d) Systematic observations

i) The state of the ozone layer (i.e. spatial variability and

time of the total content of the column and vertical distribution), in

making fully operational the Global Observing System of

the ozone layer based on the integration of satellite systems and

ground systems;

ii) Concentrations, in the troposphere and the stratosphere, of gases giving

birth of HOx, NOx, and CIOx radicals, including derivatives

carbon;

iii) Temperature from the ground to the mesosphere, using at the

both ground and satellite systems;

iv) Solar flux – wavelengths – entering the Earth’s atmosphere

and thermal radiation exiting the Earth’s atmosphere, in

using satellite measurements;

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v) Solar flux – wavelengths – reaching the surface of the Earth

in the field of UV-B radiation;

vi) The properties and distribution of aerosols, from the soil to the

mesosphere using both ground and ground systems

satellite;

vii) The continuation of high-level meteorological measurement programs

surface quality for important climate variables;

viii) Improvement of the methods of analysis of the data provided by

systematic observations at the global level on the bodies present at

trace levels, temperatures, solar flux and aerosols.

3. The Parties to the Convention shall cooperate, taking into account the special needs

developing countries, to promote scientific and technical training

appropriate necessary to participate in systematic research and observations

described in this annex. Particular emphasis should be placed on

the comparative calibration of observation devices and methods in order to

obtain comparable or standardized scientific data sets.

4. The following chemicals of natural or anthropogenic origin, including

list does not imply a particular ranking, seem to have the power to modify

the chemical and physical properties of the ozone layer.

a) Carbon derivatives

i) Carbon monoxide (CO)

Carbon monoxide is produced in large quantities by sources

natural and artificial and seems to play an important role, directly,

in the photochemistry of the troposphere, indirectly, in the photochemistry

of the stratosphere;

ii) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide is produced in large quantities by sources

natural and artificial and acts on the ozone of the stratosphere by modifying

the thermal structure of the atmosphere;

iii) Methane (CH4)

Methane is of both natural and anthropogenic origin and influences

on ozone in both the troposphere and the stratosphere;

iv) Hydrocarbons other than methane

These hydrocarbons, which include a large number of substances

chemicals, have both natural and anthropogenic origins and play

a role, directly, in the photochemistry of the troposphere, indirectly

in the photochemistry of the stratosphere.

b) Nitrogen derivatives

i) Nitrous oxide (N2O)

The main source of N2O is natural, but man-made emissions

become more and more important. This protoxide is the source

primary stratospheric NOx, which play a major role in limiting

the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere;

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0.814.02

ii) Nitrogen peroxides (NOx)

Ground sources of NOx do not play an essential role, directly,

than in photochemical processes within the troposphere, and, indirectly,

in stratospheric photochemical processes, then

that NOx injections near the tropopause can modify

directly the amount of ozone in the troposphere and the stratosphere.

c) Chlorine derivatives

i) Fully halogenated alkanes eg CCl4, CFCl3 (CFC – 11),

CF2Cl2 (CFC – 12), C2F3Cl3 (CFC – 113), C2F4Cl2 (CFC – 114)

Fully halogenated alkanes are of anthropogenic origin and

are a source of ClOx, which play a major role in the

ozone photochemistry, particularly between 30 and 50 km altitude;

ii) Partially halogenated alkanes

for example CH3Cl, CHF2Cl (CFC – 22) CH3CCl3, CHFCl2 (CFC – 21)

The source of CH3Cl is natural, while the other alkanes partially

halogens mentioned above are of anthropogenic origin. These

gases are also a source of stratospheric ClOx.

d) Bromine derivatives

Fully halogenated alkanes

for example CF3Br

These gases are of anthropogenic origin and constitute a source of BrOx, which

behaves in the same way as the ClOx.

e) Hydrogenated substances

i) Hydrogen (H2)

Hydrogen is of natural and anthropogenic origin; he plays a secondary role

in the photochemistry of the stratosphere;

ii) Water (H2O)

Water, which is of natural origin, plays an essential role in the

photochemistry of the troposphere and the stratosphere. Among the causes

localities of the presence of water vapor in the stratosphere are shown

oxidation of methane and, to a lesser extent, that of

hydrogen.

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0.814.02

Annex II

Exchange of information

1. The Parties to the Convention recognize that the collection and sharing

information is an important means of achieving the objectives of this

Convention and ensure that any measures that may be taken are appropriate

and fair. Accordingly, the Parties will exchange scientific information,

technical, socio-economic, commercial and legal.

2. In deciding what information is to be collected and shared, the Parties to

the Convention should take into account the usefulness of this information and

the expenses to be incurred to obtain them. The Parties further recognize that the

cooperation under this Annex shall be compatible with the laws, customs

and national regulations on patents, trade secrets and protection

confidential information and relating to exclusive rights.

3. Scientific information

This information includes:

a) Public and private research, planned and underway, with a view to facilitating

the coordination of research programs in order to get the best

possible use of available national and international resources;

(b) Emissions data which are necessary for research;

c) The scientific results published in specialized periodicals on the

physics and chemistry of the earth’s atmosphere and its sensitivity

changes, and in particular the state of the ozone layer and the

effects of modifying both the total content of the column

ozone than the vertical distribution of ozone, regardless of

the time scale, on the health of human populations, the environment

and the climate;

d) Evaluation of research results and recommendations on the work

future research.

4. Technical information

This information relates in particular to:

a) The existence and cost of chemical substitutes and technologies

alternatives that can be used to reduce emissions of substances

that lead to changes in the ozone layer and research

related undertaken or contemplated;

b) The limitations and possibly the risks involved in the use of

chemical or other substitutes and alternative technologies.

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0.814.02

5. Socio-economic and commercial information on the substances

referred to in Annex I

This information relates in particular to:

a) Production and production capacity;

b) Use and modes of use;

c) Imports and exports;

d) The costs, risks and benefits of human activities likely to modify

indirectly the ozone layer and the impact of regulatory measures

taken or envisaged to control these activities.

6. Legal information

This information relates in particular to:

a) National laws, administrative measures and research work

legal issues relating to the protection of the ozone layer;

b) International agreements, and in particular bilateral agreements, of interest

protection of the ozone layer;

c) Methods and conditions of licensing agreements and patents

existing regulations concerning the protection of the ozone layer.

Ozone layer protection

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0.814.02

Scope of application on May 12, 2005

States Parties Ratification

Membership (A)

Coming into force

Afghanistan June 17, 2004 To September 15, 2004

South Africa January 15, 1990 To April 15, 1990

Albania October 8, 1999 To January 6, 2000

Algeria October 20, 1992 To January 18, 1993

Germany September 30, 1988 December 29, 1988

Angola May 17, 2000 To August 15, 2000

Antigua and Barbuda December 3, 1992 To March 3, 1993

Saudi Arabia March 1, 1993 To May 30, 1993

Argentina January 18, 1990 April 18, 1990

Armenia October 1, 1999 To December 30, 1999

Australia September 16, 1987 To September 22, 1988

Austria August 19, 1987 September 22, 1988

Azerbaijan June 12, 1996 To September 10, 1996

Bahamas April 1, 1993 To June 30, 1993

Bahrein April 27, 1990 To July 26, 1990

Bangladesh August 2, 1990 To October 31, 1990

Barbados October 16, 1992 To January 14, 1993

Belarus June 20, 1986 September 22, 1988

Belgium October 17, 1988 January 15, 1989

Belize June 6, 1997 To September 4, 1997

Benin July 1, 1993 To September 29, 1993

Bhutan August 23, 2004 To November 21, 2004

Bolivia October 3, 1994 To January 1, 1995

Bosnia and Herzegovina September 1, 1993 S March 6, 1992

Botswana December 4, 1991 To March 3, 1992

Brazil March 19, 1990 To June 17, 1990

Brunei July 26, 1990 To October 24, 1990

Bulgaria November 20, 1990 To February 18, 1991

Burkina Faso March 30, 1989 June 28, 1989

Burundi January 6, 1997 To April 6, 1997

Cambodia June 27, 2001 To September 25, 2001

Cameroon August 30, 1989 To November 28, 1989

Canada June 4, 1986 September 22, 1988

Cape Verde July 31, 2001 To October 29, 2001

Chile March 6, 1990 June 4, 1990

China September 11, 1989 To December 10, 1989

Hong Konga June 6, 1997 July 1, 1997

Macaob October 19, 1999 December 20, 1999

Cyprus May 28, 1992 To August 26, 1992

Colombia July 16, 1990 To October 14, 1990

Economic community

CE / EEC / EU *

October 17, 1988 January 15, 1989

Comoros October 31, 1994 To January 29, 1995

Protection of ecological balance

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0.814.02

States Parties Ratification

Membership (A)

Coming into force

Congo (Brazzaville) November 16, 1994 To February 14, 1995

Congo (Kinshasa) November 30, 1994 To February 28, 1995

Korea (North) January 24, 1995 To April 24, 1995

Korea (South) February 27, 1992 To May 27, 1992

Costa Rica July 30, 1991 To October 28, 1991

Côte d’Ivoire April 5, 1993 To July 4, 1993

Croatia September 21, 1992 S October 8, 1991

Cuba July 14, 1992 To October 12, 1992

Denmark September 29, 1988 December 28, 1988

Djibouti July 30, 1999 To October 28, 1999

Dominica March 31, 1993 To June 29, 1993

Egypt May 9, 1988 September 22, 1988

El Salvador October 2, 1992 To December 31, 1992

United Arab Emirates December 22, 1989 To March 22, 1990

Ecuador April 10, 1990 To July 9, 1990

Eritrea March 10, 2005 To June 8, 2005

Spain July 25, 1988 To October 23, 1988

Estonia October 17, 1996 To January 15, 1997

United States August 27, 1986 September 22, 1988

Ethiopia October 11, 1994 To January 9, 1995

Fiji October 23, 1989 To January 21, 1990

Finland * September 26, 1986 September 22, 1988

France December 4, 1987 September 22, 1988

Gabon February 9, 1994 To May 10, 1994

Gambia July 25, 1990 To October 23, 1990

Georgia March 21, 1996 To June 19, 1996

Ghana July 24, 1989 To October 22, 1989

Greece December 29, 1988 March 29, 1989

Grenada March 31, 1993 To June 29, 1993

Guatemala September 11, 1987 To September 22, 1988

Guinea June 25, 1992 To September 23, 1992

Equatorial Guinea August 17, 1988 To November 15, 1988

Guinea-Bissau November 12, 2002 To February 10, 2003

Guyana August 12, 1993 To November 10, 1993

Haiti March 29, 2000 To June 27, 2000

Honduras October 14, 1993 To January 12, 1994

Hungary May 4, 1988 To September 22, 1988

Cook Islands December 22, 2003 To March 21, 2004

Marshall Islands March 11, 1993 To June 9, 1993

Solomon Islands June 17, 1993 To September 15, 1993

India March 18, 1991 To June 16, 1991

Indonesia June 26, 1992 To September 24, 1992

Iran October 3, 1990 To January 1, 1991

Ireland September 15, 1988 To December 14, 1988

Iceland August 29, 1989 To November 27, 1989

Ozone layer protection

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0.814.02

States Parties Ratification

Membership (A)

Coming into force

Israel June 30, 1992 To September 28, 1992

Italy September 19, 1988 December 18, 1988

Jamaica March 31, 1993 To June 29, 1993

Japan September 30, 1988 To December 29, 1988

Jordan May 31, 1989 To August 29, 1989

Kazakhstan August 26, 1998 To November 24, 1998

Kenya November 9, 1988 To February 7, 1989

Kyrgyzstan May 31, 2000 To August 29, 2000

Kiribati January 7, 1993 To April 7, 1993

Kuwait November 23, 1992 To February 21, 1993

Laos August 21, 1998 To November 19, 1998

Lesotho March 25, 1994 To June 23, 1994

Latvia April 28, 1995 To July 27, 1995

Lebanon March 30, 1993 To June 28, 1993

Liberia January 15, 1996 To April 14, 1996

Libya July 11, 1990 To October 9, 1990

Liechtenstein February 8, 1989 To May 9, 1989

Lithuania January 18, 1995 To April 18, 1995

Luxembourg October 17, 1988 January 15, 1989

Macedonia March 10, 1994 S September 17, 1991

Madagascar November 7, 1996 To February 5, 1997

Malaysia August 29, 1989 To November 27, 1989

Malawi January 9, 1991 To April 9, 1991

Maldives April 26, 1988 To September 22, 1988

Mali October 28, 1994 To January 26, 1995

Malta September 15, 1988 To December 14, 1988

Morocco December 28, 1995 March 27, 1996

Mauritius August 18, 1992 To November 16, 1992

Mauritania May 26, 1994 To August 24, 1994

Mexico September 14, 1987 September 22, 1988

Micronesia August 3, 1994 To November 1, 1994

Moldova October 24, 1996 To January 22, 1997

Monaco March 12, 1993 To June 10, 1993

Mongolia March 7, 1996 To June 5, 1996

Mozambique September 9, 1994 To December 8, 1994

Myanmar November 24, 1993 To February 22, 1994

Namibia September 20, 1993 To December 19, 1993

Nauru November 12, 2001 To February 10, 2002

Nepal July 6, 1994 To October 4, 1994

Nicaragua March 5, 1993 To June 3, 1993

Niger October 9, 1992 To January 7, 1993

Nigeria October 31, 1988 To January 29, 1989

Niue December 22, 2003 To March 21, 2004

Norway * September 23, 1986 September 22, 1988

New Zealandec June 2, 1987 September 22, 1988

Protection of ecological balance

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0.814.02

States Parties Ratification

Membership (A)

Coming into force

Oman June 30, 1999 To September 28, 1999

Uganda June 24, 1988 To September 22, 1988

Uzbekistan May 18, 1993 To August 16, 1993

Pakistan December 18, 1992 To March 18, 1993

Palau May 29, 2001 To August 27, 2001

Panama February 13, 1989 To May 14, 1989

Papua New Guinea October 27, 1992 To January 25, 1993

Paraguay December 3, 1992 To March 3, 1993

Netherlands * September 28, 1988 December 27, 1988

Netherlands Antilles September 28, 1988 December 27, 1988

Aruba September 28, 1988 December 27, 1988

Peru April 7, 1989 July 6, 1989

Philippines July 17, 1991 October 15, 1991

Poland July 13, 1990 To October 11, 1990

Portugal October 17, 1988 To January 15, 1989

Qatar January 22, 1996 To April 21, 1996

Central African Republic March 29, 1993 To June 27, 1993

Dominican Republic May 18, 1993 To August 16, 1993

Czech Republic September 30, 1993 S January 1, 1993

Romania January 27, 1993 To April 27, 1993

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia,

Anguilla, Bermuda,

Gibraltar, Cayman Islands,

Falkland Islands and outbuildings,

Isle of Man, Pitcairn Islands

(Henderson, Ducie and Oeno),

Turks and Caicos Islands,

British Virgin Islands,

Jersey, Montserrat,

Saint Helena and dependencies,

Antarctic Territory

British Territory

British Ocean

Indian,

May 15

May 15

1987

1987

September 22

September 22

1988

1988

Guernsey August 30, 1990 August 30, 1990

Russia June 18, 1986 September 22, 1988

Rwanda October 11, 2001 To January 9, 2002

Saint Kitts and Nevis August 10, 1992 To November 8, 1992

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines December 2, 1996 To March 2, 1997

Saint Lucia July 28, 1993 To October 26, 1993

Samoa December 21, 1992 To March 21, 1993

Sao Tome and Principe November 19, 2001 To February 17, 2002

Senegal March 19, 1993 To June 17, 1993

Serbia and Montenegro March 12, 2001 S April 27, 1992

Ozone layer protection

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0.814.02

States Parties Ratification

Membership (A)

Coming into force

Seychelles January 6, 1993 To April 6, 1993

Sierra Leone August 29, 2001 To November 27, 2001

Singapore January 5, 1989 To April 5, 1989

Slovakia May 28, 1993 S January 1, 1993

Slovenia July 6, 1992 S June 25, 1991

Somalia August 1, 2001 To October 30, 2001

Sudan January 29, 1993 To April 29, 1993

Sri Lanka December 15, 1989 To March 15, 1990

Sweden * November 26, 1986 September 22, 1988

Switzerland December 17, 1987 September 22, 1988

Suriname October 14, 1997 To January 12, 1998

Swaziland November 10, 1992 To February 8, 1993

Syria December 12, 1989 To March 12, 1990

Tajikistan May 6, 1996 To August 4, 1996

Tanzania April 7, 1993 To July 6, 1993

Chad May 18, 1989 To August 16, 1989

Thailand July 7, 1989 To October 5, 1989

Togo February 25, 1991 To May 26, 1991

Tonga July 29, 1998 To October 27, 1998

Trinidad and Tobago August 28, 1989 To November 26, 1989

Tunisia September 25, 1989 To December 24, 1989

Turkmenistan November 18, 1993 To February 16, 1994

Turkey September 20, 1991 To December 19, 1991

Tuvalu July 15, 1993 To October 13, 1993

Ukraine June 18, 1986 September 22, 1988

Uruguay February 27, 1989 To May 28, 1989

Vanuatu November 21, 1994 To February 19, 1995

Venezuela September 1, 1988 To November 30, 1988

Vietnam January 26, 1994 To April 26, 1994

Yemen February 21, 1996 To May 21, 1996

Zambia January 24, 1990 To April 24, 1990

Zimbabwe November 3, 1992 To February 1, 1993

* Statements, see below.

a From May 15, 1987 to June 30, 1997, the Convention was applicable in Hong Kong on the basis

a declaration of territorial extension of the United Kingdom. From July 1, 1997,

Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Republic

People of China. By virtue of the Chinese declaration of 6 June 1997, the Convention is

also applicable to Hong Kong SAR from July 1, 1997.

b From 15 Feb. 1994 to 19 Dec. 1999, the Convention was applicable to Macao on the basis

a declaration of territorial extension of Portugal. From 20 Dec. 1999, Macau

became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of

China. By virtue of the Chinese declaration of 19 Oct. 1999, the Convention is also

applicable to Macao SAR from 20 Dec. 1999.

c On the date of the accession of Niue and the Cook Islands to the Convention, the declaration

New Zealand’s territorial jurisdiction has lapsed.

Protection of ecological balance

24

0.814.02

Statements

Finland

With reference to art. 11, s. 3, of the Convention, Finland declares that it accepts

as compulsory the two modes of dispute settlement that have been provided for.

Norway

Norway agrees to consider as compulsory the methods of settlement of

disputes described in paras. a) and b) of s. 3 of art. 11 of the convention:

a) arbitration in accordance with the procedure to be adopted by the Conference

Parties at its first ordinary session or

b) submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.

Netherlands

In accordance with art. 11, s. 3, of the Convention, the Kingdom of the Netherlands accepts

to consider as mandatory for the settlement of an unresolved dispute

in accordance with art. 11, s. 1 or by. 2, of the convention the two methods of payment

of the following disputes:

a) arbitration in accordance with the procedure to be adopted by the Conference

Parties at its first ordinary session;

b) submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.

Sweden

Sweden agrees to consider the following payment method as compulsory:

Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice (art. 11, para. 3 b).

However, the Swedish Government intends to consider as

the following payment method is compulsory:

Arbitration, in accordance with the procedure to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties,

at its first ordinary session (art. 11, para. 3 a).

However, Sweden will wait to make a statement on this last point until the

arbitration procedure has been adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its first

ordinary session.

European Economic Community

1. On behalf of the European Economic Community, it is hereby declared

that the said Community can accept arbitration as a method of settlement

under the conditions of the Vienna Convention for the protection of the diaper

ozone.

It cannot accept the submission of any dispute to the International Court of

justice.

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0.814.02

2. Taking into account the usual procedures of the European Community, the participation

Community financial support to the Vienna Convention for the

ozone layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete

the ozone layer may not entail expenditure for the Community other than

than those relating to administrative costs, these expenses may not exceed

2.5 percent of total administrative costs.

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0.814.02

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